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SOME BEAUTY FROM TURKEY
located beside the river Eurymedon (Köprüçay), is renowned throughout the
world for its magnificent ancient amphitheatre. .
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According to Greek legend, the city was founded by Argive colonists who,
under the leadership of the hero Mopsos, came to Pamphylia after the
Trojan War. Aspendos was one of the first cities in the region to strike
coinage under its own name. On these silver staters dated to the fifth and
fourth century B.C., however, the name of the city is written es
Estwediiys in the local script. A late eighth century B.C. bilingual
inscription carved in both Hittite hieroglyphs and the Phoenician alphabet
discovered in the 1947 excavation of Karatepe near Adana, states that
Asitawada, the king of Danunum (Adana), founded a city called Azitawadda,
a derivation of his own name, and that he was a member of the Muksas, or
Mopsus, dynasty. The striking similarity between the names "Estwediiys"
and "azitawaddi" suggests the possibility that Aspendos was the city this
Aspendos did not play an important role in antiquity as a political force.
Its political history during the colonization period corresponded to the
currents of the Pamphylian region. Within this trend, after the colonial
period, it remained for a time under Lycian hegemony. In 546 B.C. it came
under Persian domination. The face that the city continued to mint coins
in its own name, however, indicates that it had a great deal of freedom
even under the Persians.
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In 467 B.C. the statesman and military commander Cimon, and his fleet of
200 ships, destroyed the Persian navy based at the mouth of the river
Eurymedon in a surprise attack. In order to crush to Persian land forces,
he tricked the Persians by sending his best fighters to shore wearing the
garments of the hostages he had seized earlier. When they saw these men,
the Persians thought that they were compatriots freed by the enemy and
arranged festivities in celebration. Taking advantage of this, Cimon
landed and annihilated the Persians. Aspendos then became a member of the
Attic-Delos Maritime league.
The Persians captured the city again in 411 B.C. and used it as a base. In
389 B.C. the commander of Athens, in an effort to regain some of the
prestige that city had lost in the Peloponnesian Wars, anchored off the
coast of Aspendos in an effort to secure its surrender. Hoping to avoid a
new war, the people of Aspendos collected money among themselves and gave
it to the commander, entreating him to retreat without causing any damage.
Even though he took the money, he had his men trample all the crops in the
fields. Enraged, the Aspendians stabbed and killed the Athenian commander
in his tent.
When Alexander the Great marched into Aspendos in 333 B.C. after capturing
Perge, the citizens sent envoys to him to request that he would not
establish that he be given the taxes and horses that they had formerly
paid as tribute to the Persian king. After reaching this agreement.
Alexander went to Side, leaving a garrison there on the city's surrender.
Going back through Sillyon, he learned that the Aspendians had failed to
ratify the agreement their envoys had proposed and were preparing to
defend themselves. Alexander marched to the city immediately. When they
saw Alexander returning with his troops, the Aspendians, who had retreated
to their acropolis, again sent envoys to sue for peace. This time, however,
they had to agree to very harsh terms; a Macedonian garrison would remain
in the city and 100 gold talents as well as 4.000 horses would be given in
During the wars that followed the death of Alexander, the city came
alternately under the control of the Ptolemies and the Seleucids, later
falling into the hands of the Kingdom of Pergamum, to which it remained
bound until 133 B.C.
From Cicero's presentation of the case before the Roman senate, we know
that in 79 B.C. Gaius Verres, the questor of Cilicia, pillaged Aspendos
just as he had Perge. Verres, right in front of the citizens, took statues
from the temples and squares and had them loaded into carts. He even had
Aspendos famous statue of a harpist set up in his own home.
Aspendos, like most of the other Pamphylian cities, reached its height in
the second and third centuries A.D. Most of the monumental architecture
still visible here today dates to this golden age. Although the city was
not on the coast, the river Eurymedon, on whose banks it was situated,
allowed ships to reach it. This accessibility, together with the
productive plain and the thickly forested mountains that lay behind
Aspendos, were major factors in its development. Gold and silver
embroidered tapestries woven in the city, furniture and figurines made
from the wood of lemon trees, salt obtained from nearby Lake Capria, wine,
and especially the famous horses of Aspendos were its foremost exports.
Although they were renowned as grape growers and wine merchants, they did
not offer wine to their gods in their religious rites. They explained this
omission by saying that if wine were reserved for the gods, birds would
not have the courage to eat grapes.
Few Aspendians made a name for themselves in history. Andromachos was a
famous military commander in his day and was also the governor of
Phoenicia and Syria. Little is known of the work of the native philosopher
Diodorus, but that he wore the long hair, dirty clothes, and bare feet of
the Cynics, which suggests he was influenced by Pythagorus.
At the beginning of the thirteenth century, Aspendos began to bear the
imprint of settlement by the Seljuk Turks, especially during the reign of
Alaeddin Keykubat I, when the theatre was thoroughly restored, embellished
in Seljuk style with elegant tiles, and used as a palace.
At the end of the road that turns off the Antalya -Alanya highway, we come
to the most magnificent, as well as functionally the best resolved and
most complete example of a Roman theatre. The building, faithful to the
Greek tradition, is partially built into the slope of a hill. Today
visitors enter the stage building via a door opened in the facade during a
much later period. The original entrances, however, are the vaulted
paradoses at both ends of the stage building. The cavea is semicircular in
shape and divided in two by a large diazoma. There are 21 tiers of seats
above and 20 below. To provide ease of circulation so that the spectators
could reach their seats without difficulty, radiating stairways were built,
10 in the lower level starting at the orchestra and 21 in the upper
beginning at the diazoma. A wide gallery consisting of 59 arches and
thought to have been built at a later date, goes from one end of the upper
cavea to the other. From an architectural point of view, the diazoma's
vaulted gallery acts as a substructure supporting the upper cavea. As a
general rule of protocol, the private boxes above the entrances on both
sides of the cavea were reserved for the Imperial family and the vestal
virgins. Beginning from the orchestra and going up, the first row of seats
belonged to senators, judges, and ambassadors, while the second was
reserved for other notables of the city. The remaining sections were open
to all the citizens. The women usually sat on the upper rows under the
gallery. From the names carved on certain seats in the upper cavea, it is
clear that these too were reserved. Although it is impossible to determine
the exact seating capacity of the theatre, it is said to have seated
between 10,000 and 12,000 people. In recent years, concerts given in the
theatre as part of the Antalya Film and Art Festival, have shown that as
many as 20,000 spectators can be crowded into the seating area.
Without doubt the Aspendos theatre's most striking component is the stage
building. On the lower floor of this two-storey structure, which is built
of conglomerate rock, were five doors providing the actors entrance to the
stage. The large door at the centre was known as the porta regia, and the
two smaller ones on either side as the porta hospitales. The small doors
at orchestra level belong to long corridors leading to the areas where the
wild animals were kept. From surviving fragments it appears that
sculptural works were placed in niches and aedicula under triangular and
In the pediment at the centre of the colonnaded upper floor is a relief of
Dionysos, the god of wine and the founder and patron of theatres. Red
zigzag motifs against white plaster, visible on some portions of the stage
building, date to the Seljuk period. The top of the stage building is
covered with a highly ornamented wooden roof.
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The theatre at Aspendos is also famous for its magnificent accoustics.
Even the sligtest sound made at the centre of the orchestra can be easily
hear as far as the uppermost galleries. Anatolia's patricians, who lived
in the midst of a rich cultural heritage, created stories connected with
the cities and monuments around them. One of these tales which has been
passed down from generation to generation is about Aspendos' theatre. The
king of Aspendos proclaimed that he would hold a contest to see what man
could render the greatest service to the city; the winner would marry the
king's daughter. Hearing this, the artisans of the city began to work at
high speed. At last, when the day of the decision came and the king had
examined all their efforts one by one, he designated two candidates. The
first of them had succeeded in setting up a system that enabled water to
be brought to the city from great distances via aqueducts. The second
built the theatre. Just as the king was on the point of deciding in favour
of the first candidate, he was asked to have one more look at the theatre.
While he was wandering about in the upper galleries, a deep voice from an
unknown source out saying again and again, "The king's daughter must be
given to me" . In astonishment the king looked around for the owner of the
voice but could find no one. It was, of course, the architect himself,
proud of the accoustical masterpiece he had created, who was speaking in a
low voice from the stage. In the end, it was the architect who won the
beautiful girl and the wedding ceremony took place in the theatre.
We know from an inscription in the southern parados that the theatre was
constructed during the reign of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161-180 A.D.)
by the architect Zeno, the son of an Aspendian named Theodoros. According
to the inscription, the people of Aspendos, out of admiration for Zeno,
awarded him a large garden beside the stadium. Greek and Latin
inscriptions above the entrances on both sides of the stage building tell
us that, two brothers named Curtius Crispinus and Curtius Auspicatus
commissioned the building and dedicated it to the gods and the Imperial
No fee was charged for putting on a performance in the theatre. A portion
of the necessary production costs were covered by civic institutions, but
after the performance, part of the profits was turned over to these
organizations. Generally one had to pay a fee or buy tickets to gain entry
to plays or competitions. Tickets were made of metal, ivory, bone, or in
most cases, fired clay, with a picture on one side and a row and seat
number on the other.
Aspendos' other principal remains are above the acropolis, behind the
theatre. The first building one comes to on the acropolis, which is
reached via a footpath starting alongside the theatre, is a basilica
measuring 27x105 metres. The basilica is an architectural from invented by
the Romans. Roman basilicas were used for a wide wariety of purposes, but
these were all concerned with public affairs. Markets and law courts were
set up in buildings. The basilica plan consists of a large central hall
surrounded by smaller chambers. The central hall is separated from those
at the sides by columns and its roof is higher. İnside the basilica is a
tribunal. During the Byzantine era the building underwent major
alterations and lost much of its original character.
South of the basilica and bounded on three sides by houses, is the agora,
the centre of the city's commercial, social, and political activities. A
little further to the west are twelve shops of equal size all in a line at
the rear of a stoa.
North of the agora is a nymphaeum of which only the front wall remains
standing. Measuring 32.5 m. in width by 15 m. in height, this two-level
facade has five niches at each level. The middle niche in the lower level
is larger than the others and is thought have been used as a door. It is
clear from the marble bases at the foot of the wall that the building
originally had a colonnaded facade.
Behind the nymphaeum is a building of unusual plan, either an odeon or a
bouleuterion where council members met.
Another of Aspendos' remains that should not be missed is its aqueduct.
This one kilometre-long series of arches which brought water to the city
from the mountains at the north, represents an extraordinary feat of
engineering and is one of the rare examples surviving antiquity. The water
was brought from ist source in a channel formed by hollowed stone blocks
on top of 15 metre-high arches. Near both ends of the aqueduct the water
was collected in towers some 30 metres high, which was distributed to the
An inscription found in Aspendos tells us that a certain Tiberius Claudius
Italicus had the aqueduct built, and presented it to the city. Its
architectural features and construction techniques date it to the middle
of the second century A.D.
Greek ASPENDOS, modern BELKIS, ancient city of Pamphylia, now in
southwestern Turkey. It is noted for its Roman ruins. A wide range of
coinage from the 5th century BC onward attests to the city's wealth.
Aspendus was occupied by Alexander the Great in 333 BC and later passed
from Pergamene to Roman rule in 133 BC. According to Cicero, it was
plundered of many of its artistic treasures by the provincial governor
Verres. The hilltop ruins of the city include a basilica, an agora, and
some rock-cut tombs of Phrygian design. A huge theatre, one of the finest
in the world, is carved out of the northeast flank of the hill. It was
designed by the Roman architect Zeno in honour of the emperor Marcus
Aurelius (reigned AD 161-180)
The present-day Belkiz was once situated on the banks of the River
Eurymedon, now known as the Kopru Cay. In ancient times it was navigable;
in fact, according to Strabo, the Persians anchored their ships there in
468 B.C., before the epic battle against the Delian Confederation.
It is commonly believed that Aspendos was founded by colonists from Argos.
One thing is certain: right from the beginning of the 5th century,
Aspendos and Side were the only two towns to mint coins. An important
river trading port, it was occupied by Alexander the Great in 333 B.C.
because it refused to pay tribute to the Macedonian king. It became an
ally of Rome after the Battle of Sipylum in 190 B.C. and entered the Roman
The town is built against two hills: on the "great hill" or Buyuk Tepe
stood the acropolis, with the agora, basilica, nymphaeum and bouleuterion
or "council chamber". Of all these buildings, which were the very hub of
the town, only ruins remain. About one kilometer north of the town, one
can still see the remains of the Roman aqueduct that supplied Aspendos
with water, transporting it from a distance of over twenty kilometers, and
which still maintains its original height.
Aspendos' theatre is the best preserved Roman theatre anywhere in Turkey.
It was designed during the 2nd century A.D. by the architect Zeno, son of
Theodore and originally from Aspendos. Its two benefactorsЧ the brothers
Curtius Crispinus and Curtius Auspicatus Чdedicated it to the Imperial
family as can be seen from certain engravings on the stones. Discovered in
1871 by Count Landskonski during one of his trips to the region, the
theatre is in excellent condition thanks to the top quality of the
calcareous stone and to the fact that the Seljuks turned it into a palace,
reinforcing the entire north wing with bricks. Its thirty-nine tiers of
stepsЧ96 meters longЧcould seat about twenty thousand spectators. At the
top, the elegant gallery and covered arcade sheltered spectators. One is
immediately struck by the integrity and architectural distinction of the
stage building, consisting of a Irons scacnae which opens with five doors
onto the proscenium and scanned by two orders of windows which also
project onto the outside wall.
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There is an amusing anecdote about the construction of this theatreЧin
which numerous plays are still held, given its formidable acoustics Ч and
the aqueduct just outside the town: in ancient times, the King of Aspendos
had a daughter of rare beauty named Semiramis, contended by two architects;
the king decided to marry her off to the one who built an important public
work in the shortest space of time. The two suitors thus got down to work
and completed two public works at the same time: the theatre and the
aquaduct. As the sovereign liked both buildings, he thought it right and
just to divide his daughter in half. Whereas the designer of the aquaduct
accepted the Solomonic division, the other preferred to grant the princess
wholly to her rival. In this way, the sovereign understood that the
designer of the theatre had not only built a magnificent theatreЧ which
was the pride of the townЧ, but would also be an excellent husband to his
daughter; consequently he granted him her hand in marriage.